Isan music and performances are associated with ritual activities. Play and recreation of Isan music and performances also reflect the worldview, lifestyle and adaptation to the environment.
Isan music and performances It has local characteristics and a mix of neighboring cultures. For example, the upper Isan communities are closely related to the Mekong culture. The lower Isan communities are very close and blend with Khmer culture.
The history of Mo Lam in the Isan region means an expert in singing, including poetry and dance expressions. In some way, “Mo” means experts and “Lam” are understood to come from bamboo trunks which contains in poem inscriptions and ancient books.
Mor Lam Ritual is the art of singing and performing for entertainment. Also used in performing rituals with a purpose to contact with sacred objects, spirits to come down to heal the fever which is common in the Isan region. There are different names such as Mo Lam, Phi Fa, Mo Yao
Mo Lam Klon is a kind of entertainment. It is used as an entertainment in merit-making and fortune. The Lam or Mo Lam must be the one who memorized a lot of poems and can choose to bring any poetry to the mix before and after. Instead, it takes precautions to be appropriate for the situation in which you interact with your partner, and to be able to attract and stimulate the attention of listeners to follow at all times.
There are many types of performances such as
– Lam Kiew: with one male and one female
– Lam Jot Kae: with male, female, pair or male and female.
– Lam Sam Klo: with three male together.
– Lam Choeng Choo: with both male and female with musicians or instruments It uses only a So as an rhythmic instrument.
Korat songs have been played since any period without clear evidence. It is assumed that the application is derived from the Khmer and the Choy of the central region but use some Korat words, some Thai words, making up music. Korat songs in the first stage will be played like Kom which is a short song, interact with each other. Korat music is both a ceremonial play (Mor Pleng) to celebrate in various events and the play of the villagers in their free time for fun, such as hanging out and after harvesting.
Kan is a type of wind instrument with a free tongue. Kan sound is produced by blowing or sucking air through the tongue. Kan is the most popular musical instrument of the Isan people since ancient times and is considered Kan is a symbol of Isan people. There is no evidence as to when Kan occurred. Who invented it? If there is no evidence from the bronze axes carved in Dongseon period. It makes me believe that Kan has existed thousands of years.
Kan is a beautiful musical instrument. The blow will be done with both hands. Force the sound, causing the cannon to come out with both melodies and harmonies. The sound is completely interpolated to express various emotions and feelings, and when the skillful Mo Kan plays the “Lai” (Isaan folk melody), it becomes even more attractive.
Pong Lang is a type of percussion instrument. It looks like a xylophone in Thai music. Pong lang is made of hardwood, gooseberry wood. The dryer gooseberry wood, it will sound especially good. It is popular to use a large piece of wood around the forearm and then be used to cut, lathe, decorate, drill holes for stringing 2 xylophone holes, compare the volume according to the cane sound, there are 5 sounds, starting from the low sound to the total high sol. When playing, hang diagonally at an angle of about 30-45 degrees to the ground for a big ball, bass on top, and then descend steadily. Pong Lang was used by two players at the same time. One person called “Mo Kho” to knock the melody. Another person called “Mo Saeb” to do the tapping, chorus and rhythm on the right hand of the knocker. Pong Lang can be performed both solo and in band with other instruments such as Kan, harp, etc. The melody is used to perform folk songs based on Kan, traditional Thai songs, Lao songs and international songs with a pentatonic scale.
Pin is a stringed instrument. The same type as Krahabpie, can be performed both in melody and in choir, made from a single log. The popular wood to make the harp is the jackfruit wood, giving the best sound because it is bright. The size of the harp will depend on the size of the logs. It is assumed that the Pin is a musical instrument influenced by ancient Indian cultures and adapted to suit the way of life of the Isan people. In terms of refinement, invention and decoration, the materials used for the harp are local materials As for the performance, the Pin can be performed both solo and in combination with the instrument of a total of 7 sounds according to the international musical scale. Therefore able to play both Isaan folk songs, Lai Kan, traditional Thai and international songs
Vode is a mouthpiece without tongue made of wood (Ku Khan wood), the sound is produced by the airflow passing through the wood. The size of the long tongue differs according to the intonation of the Ku Khan tree. Which is attached around the center core, the core is made of bamboo, attached to the wood with wax (Khun Rong), the line consists of 6-9 pieces, the blowing time will be rotated around the mouth, choose to blow the sound as needed. Vode is a musical instrument that has been around since ancient times, in which there will be a play Is a game of the Isan peoplem, which the players will make 2 noose, collect the men together around the head and the tail of the Vode. And swinging in a circular shape around them, the sound “Wo Wo” is called the sound of a Vode. Vode has been developed to be a musical instrument that can be played with all 7 sounds according to the international sound used to play in a band with other instruments.
Drum Seng or Klong King is a double-sided drum. A wooden drum puppet stretched with cowhide pulled with a leather rope. Hit time will be very noisy. In ancient times, it was used as a late-night drum to signal the battle. Later, when the country was at peace, the villagers used to beat each other, called Seng drum (Seng in Isan language means competition), popularly played for entertainment. The competition is to beat each other. Often hit in various merit-making events, especially Bun Bang Fai, Songkran and in various parades.
Kan Treum Drum
Kan Treum Drum is a two-sided wooden drum which is called a band of Kan Treum , making a loud sound “joh prum prum”.
Lifestyle and Beliefs
Isan is an agricultural society with close ties to nature and has been passed down for a long time. The accumulation of ideas, wisdom, faith and belief in many forms such as belief in merit-sin kwan-spirit, angel-ghost and other mystical things.
Phee Fah, Phi Tan
Isan people believe that the phantom or phee Tan is the master of ghosts, the creator of the world and all things. When Khun Borom came down to rule the city for nine years, he was born in the middle of the pond and Chaichon along the large banyan tree until it obscured the sunlight, causing the world to be in darkness. Suffering to Phee Tan or Fa Khan, The sender to Khun Lai Khunyai and Mae Ya staggered down to cut the Khao Kad chain together with Tan Chi. Elves, chisels, drill water effect (Big gourd fruit) 2. The result of human beings, animals, plants. Poured out of the gourd juice It is said that the spirits will help human beings when disaster strikes. And is a ghost at a higher level than other ghosts The Isan people of all localities truly respect the spirits and there are many rituals related to the spirits, such as the sixth month fireball merit making.
Tan are a collective term referring to deities of various levels. The great elves or the Luang elves are believed to be Indra. Phee Fah or Phee Tan is often called differently in different localities, such as Phee Luang, Phi Tai, Phi Tai Thoeng, Than Nan, Kho Than Kho Than, Kho Than Chang, Than Thue or Fa Tan, etc., which the name often has implications. Related to the lifestyle of that community as well
Tan Nan is the one who determines the fate of life and sends mankind to be born in the world.
Tan Ko are elves that cause sickness, sickness, misfortune or disaster to human beings.
Tan Mae Nang make human beings grow causing milk to feed infants, etc.
According to the Orangkathat legend mention of two nagas who live in Nong Sae is devastated over food sharing, which has led to a seven-year fight for supremacy, causing distress across all human beings. Animals and angels
When Indra knew about the matter, he said to stop fighting. And there was an enlightenment that the two nagas would build a river out of Nong Sa each other Phaya Suttothanak dug into a deep canal through some mountain ranges, and around some mountain curves. Until the south, Nong Khai Province has lost its direction so it turns to the north. And the swamp was formed into a large pond called “Bueng Khong Long” or the lake of Long Lung. Is the area of Bueng Khong Long District Nong Khai Province Mekong should come from the word bend In addition, he called his comrades Phaya Chewaya Nag and Phaya Thanamun Nak to help dig the canal that Phaya Chewaya Naga dug. Became the Chi River later The canal that Phaya Thanamun Nak came to help dig into three rivers that were the main rivers of the Isan people and believed that The three rivers are also home to the Naga and the Naga Fireballs. When finished building the Mekong River, Phaya Suththonaga went to see Indra Na Daowadung and asked Indra that I was the serpent race, if he could not live in the human world for a long time. He asked to ascend and descend between three underground and human worlds and inquire about the exact area where he would be occupied at Khamchanod.
Naga, building a city, Nong Khai and Vientiane people, it is believed that Vientiane also believed that Vientiane and Wiang Kam (Wiang Khuk Subdistrict, Nong Khai Province) that Phaya Naga is the legendary creator that Thao Chan Huay Suay (Pung Pong), a merchant from Sri Khotaboon, came up to trade here and catches (Eel), but caused pity to release the fish. That flow became Phaya Suwan Nak and transformed him into a beautiful figure, built Chanthaburi. (Vientiane) to rule the city and marry Nang In As for the daughter of a merchant Kham, Bang Apisek, a Phaya Chanthaburi Prasak. (Buri Chan Huay Suay) Chanthaburi governor and called the family to cover the fortune with a total of 14 people, the city that the serpent built, there are two Nong, three, three, four, Si Ha (Si Ha is Si Mueang, 5 places, namely, Na Nuea, Na Tai, Phan Prao Si Chiang Mai District Pho Lam Lae Beach The sandy beach in front of Lan Xang and Tutam Hotel, Wiang Khuk Subdistrict, Nong Khai Province).
In addition, Isan people also believe that the serpent is a symbol of water and a symbol of power which can protect against danger.
Mo Lum Phee Fah
Lam Phee Fah is the treatment of the sick of Isan people. In which the Lam will act as a medium to contact ghosts to help heal and cure fever for the sick Living with ghosts by means of healing is a method that villagers like a lot. In addition to having family reunification, there is also a fun singing and dancing song with treatment, divided into 2 things:
1. Lam Song, Lam Song treatment is the first method. Villagers choose ghosts to get sick by shining them to see if they are ghosts that live in the human world, such as ghost town, phee, phee forest, ghost forest, ghost house. The head of the body will be someone involved with the sickness of the patient to enter the trough. Then ask his subordinates to ask, for example, what ghost are you?… .. Where did it come from?…. Why did you make a patient sick?… Or relatives to do anything wrong The spirits that came into his body would say what was wrong. And how to ask for forgiveness What are the offerings….
2. Lam Phee Fah There are two reasons for Lam Phee Fah treatment, which is the treatment with Lam Song and does not heal because the various spirits do not accept the karma and need to invite Phee Fah to help and heal. Because the spirits are more powerful Another reason is that when Lam shines and it turns out that the illness is wrong with the phantom, he will enter the trough to summon a phantom to heal the phantom of a phantom, be more advanced than Lam Song. There must also be a number of contraindications. For example, you may not borrow or ask for something in your home.
Phee Poo Ta
Isan people believe that the spirit of the ancestors of the village and community will join together to build a shrine for grandfather or Isan people called Tup Ta Pu. Every village is held by the grandfather to protect every member of the village, including pets. In addition, it is believed that the spirits of the grandfather are able to perform miracles and inspire what the villagers wish to come true.
The grandfather’s dog must be built on a hilly area, Non-Khok or Don, where the floods do not reach, there is a dense forest, overcast, with a variety of wildlife species. The cries of animals harmonize with the frizz of the trees. Causing a frightening atmosphere to make the grandfather shrine grounds Don Pu Ta or Dong Pu Ta looks more magical and sacred. The shrine of the grandfather or the father of the grandfather that is popular to build has 2 characteristics:
1. Use only one pillar like a general shrine and build a raised house on the end of the pole.
2. Use four pillars and build houses or courts as small or large as needed. Generally built to have only one hall. The interior is a place to place essential items and materials carved from wood or sculptures that are believed to be what the ancestors wanted, such as statues of people, animals, servants, etc. The front of the doghouse or court is often built with a protruding porch. As a place for sacrifices and offerings
Ba Ba Ceremony (Loei called Ba or Ba Bon): Ba Ba is a reward for the grandfather, that is, if the grandfather spirit is able to create something that any villager or the whole village wants, the villagers will give chicken liquor to it. Ghost, Chao Pu, etc.
Thao Cha is the representative of the community in communicating with the spirit or taking command from the spirit to inform. To the community as well as having the duty Take care of the residential area or carry out ritual activities related to the spirit of Pu Ta Tao, may be called by many different names, depending on the local area, such as Kham Kha Chao, Chao-Chao, or Nam.
Isan people believe that everything has a ghost to take care of what must be said first. In the past, ailments were often cured by traditional medicine, which is folk medicine believed to be able to cure all physical diseases. If treatment with folk medicine is not cured Villagers believed that a ghost would have to be treated by speaking with ghosts. Being fair is the treatment of an illness. By relying on dharma to exorcise all kinds of ghosts
To live dharma is a practice of Dhamma, with a moratham as a caretaker. Mor Dharma will use a mole thread to tie his arms and pray to make a spell to blow water to drink. Along with speaking and teaching in many different ways, but the villagers tend not to choose Living dharma because there are many taboos and strictness in the conduct
Kwan has two meanings:
1. Kwan is a character, referring to hair or fur that grows in a spiral, with both human and animal.
2. Abstract Kwan It is invisible, doesn’t exist, but is believed to be powerful. And a power in the body Can escape as I have heard that it is terrified, etc., but can be called back as well. It is believed that if the morale is with anyone’s body, that person will be happy. It doesn’t hurt, doesn’t have a fever. If the fear disappears, it can be dangerous to that person.
Therefore, it is believed that Kwan is the most important and necessary of all people, there are various rituals that will keep Kwan with him. As can be seen, every life stage from birth to old age, there will always be traditions related to Kwan, such as making a new birth celebration, making a kwan, making a monk, making a marriage ceremony, building a house, building a house, separating the main pillar, laying the foundation stone, etc. Until bringing back those who have just recovered or escaped danger Acquiring a new position, promotion Returning to the homeland, or even going on a long journey to another country. In addition, there are also special events such as welcoming visitors or visiting items such as boats, wagons, cars, guns, etc.
Most of the soils in Isan are sandstone and red soil. Which retains less moisture They are nutritious, low in plant nutrition, and some of them contain salt. In addition, Isan is always experiencing drought conditions. Due to low rainfall Therefore, the main occupation of Isan people is less. Topography, soil resources, water and minerals. The main but traditional occupations of Isan people can be divided into 2 occupations: agriculture such as rice farming, cassava farming, rock salt making and freshwater fishing.
Many crops grown in the Isan region include rice, cassava, hemp, mulberry cultivation, and silk farming, etc.
People in the Isan region extend their rice farming as their main occupation. The amount of rice obtained will vary according to the amount of rainfall each year. Provinces with good farming Including provinces along the Mekong River And although in some provinces, the rainfall is lower than 1,750 Millimeters, but still can grow rice as well. This may be because there are more than 2,500 varieties of rice that have been selected to obtain new rice varieties that are suitable for the conditions of each locality. Obtained, in addition to storing for eating, there is also a leftover product sent to sell abroad as well The famous rice variety of this region is jasmine rice.
Nature of farming divided by terrain
1. Farming of Khok or Na Khoen means the fields located in the Don area or where the Khok is unable to use water from irrigation or mining. It relies on rainwater alone. Most of them planted rice fields.
2. Lowland farming refers to lowland rice that can bring water from a solid mine or irrigation.
3. Nong farming is a field located in a swamp or a deep marsh or that used to be a swamp but was shallow. This type of area is popular to grow rice fields. Or the rice fields
About 12-14 years ago, cassava was an important economic crop. Make extra income for farmers in the Northeast and can bring income into the country second after rice. Cassava is a hot-weather plant, so it grows well between latitudes of 25 degrees north and 25 degrees south in areas up to 3,000 feet above sea level. All other starches only need water to set up after planting. Therefore suitable for the northeastern region Which has an uncertain amount and distribution of rain Nowadays, farmers are very popular to grow cassava. Because of the low cost of production Easy to grow and does not require much care. Easy to send products to the factory and can be harvested throughout all seasons.
Isaan people prefer to use rock salt to make salted fish, fermented fish, fish fry because it makes the fish not rot quickly. The smell doesn’t stink like using sea salt, the taste is not very salty, the price is cheaper. Therefore, in places that have soil, salt or salt water, villagers have made a lot of salt fields. Some places are rented out in salt fields. The rental fee is rai per month. Starting from May until November The making of rock salt has been around for many generations, and before making salt, there was a custom called Khwan Salt. Or do the bai-sri ceremony first (Similar to making Kwan Khao in other regions), where every family will make 1 boiled chicken, 1 bottle of liquor, if nothing at all, give 1 stick of sticky rice with flowers, incense and candles placed on the shrines that are set up. Any
Rock salt making
The salt source, also known as Salt hills or salt marshes are easily noticed. Will grow into white flak, villagers will use wood to dig into piles. Once the soil has been salted. Will be put in a wooden track, similar to the dug-up hull, wide and long along But the size of the wood by drilling 1-4 holes in the middle of the trunk, used to hammer or cob – tie a circle around the hole Then use coconut shell or make a circle of wood to cover it again. Then sprinkled new rice husk over another layer of wooden trough Finished, put the salt soil that was brought on top of the chaff, stepped tightly, left the soil level about 1 creep, and then put the water from the dug brine well and put it on top of the salt again. The hole in the bottom of the trough is about 1 creep of bamboo sticking it in, using a long piece of powder. Let the brine flow into the support container. When it is enough, bring the brine to a boil.
Use the zinc to cut into the pan or tray. For boiling, some stoves use bricks to build a stove, or maybe dig a hole for a stove and use 3-4 iron to support the weight. The stove may be dig deep into the earth or forming a stove. Approximately 1⁄2 meter wide and about 1 meter long to fit in a fire galvanized tray under the stove and fill the tray with filtered brine. The zinc is boiled until the lymph is filled with salt. It takes 1-2 hours to boil. One day, it will boil 4-6 trays. One tray of zinc will have 3-20 kg of salt, depending on the size of the tray being boiled.
For Isaan people, water is an important food production source. Fish are a more important protein source than any other aquatic animal.Food feed can be found generally from the vole, when the water is up front, a wide variety of aquatic life is found in streams, marshes, canals, marshes and rivers. The fish found in water bodies are catfish, snakehead, cichlid, eel, larger water bodies, larger and more types of fish are found in smaller ditches, such as fish in the Mun River, Chi River or Mekong River.
Isan has a number of different fishing tools. One of the most common tools is a random hook, a fishing net, and these catchers are made of bamboo or rattan, to be sharpened together. The elders in the village will weave these fishing tools. Each type of fish finder shows the characteristics of fishing and the type of fish in that area.
Fishing tools can be divided into 3 types:
1.Fish traps that need time to wait and some must have bait, such as lice, lobster, hide, etc.
2. A fishing tool that can be used to catch immediately. Without having to wait, such as a random harpoon, etc.
3. A fishing tool that is used to hold fish, including various types of rods and krait, etc.
Fish caught are more often made into fermented fish than any other food, with the villagers mingling the small fish with a jar of salted salt.
Vehicles used to capture aquatic animals
Catching fish in deep water or in large water bodies such as the Mekong River.
Fourth factor: food
Isan society is a traditional agricultural and farming society. A way of life is closely tied to nature. Foraging, hunting, growing crops and raising animals. To sustain life within the family Isan has a climate that is always variable, such as the rainy season, there will be too much rain than it needs. But in the dry season the water becomes so dry that it is hardly enough for consumption.
Fish are a type of aquatic animal that is easy to find in the high season. But lacking in the dry season The indigenous people then find a way to keep the fish in order to eat them all year round By bringing the fish to be fermented with rock salt that can be produced locally This salted fish is called “Pla Daak”. Pla Daak is a local dish. And is used as an essential ingredient in cooking almost all kinds of savory dishes such as Kaeng Aom, Pa Pao Curry, Jaew, Larb Koi, and others including papaya salad
As for food, there are many kinds of local vegetables and they also have medicinal properties. Isaan people prefer to grow local vegetables in their residential areas and in the fields to collect vegetables, flowers, fruits and the tops of various forest trees to eat.
In addition, animals such as frogs, yak eggs, red ants and various insects, as well as chrysalis, can also be used for cooking.
Isan people live a simple life. Therefore, eating is not very picky. The cooking is simple and contains few spices. It is mainly used to eliminate fishy smell of food such as lemongrass, onion, garlic, or to add flavor to food such as various types of chili or add mellow, such as salt, fish sauce, etc.
Isan food cooking process can be categorized as follows:
1. Cooked by boiling
1.1 Aw is to cook food by using a small amount of water to boil. Using relatively strong heat, the seasoning consists of fresh chilies, onion, garlic, galangal, lemongrass, pounded until finely. A wide variety of vegetables that are used on the ground include eggplant, basil, spring onion, gourd, lettuce, dill, or any other vegetable that can be cooked with meats such as chicken, pork, beef, fish, and more. The food that is used as the main ingredient will become the name “Aom” such as “Aom”, chicken with onions, or can be called only the name of the meat that will be used for cooking, such as Aom, Aum meat, etc.
1.2 General curry like Aom That is, it is cooking food using water as the main ingredient. Isan spices are used and that will be indispensable is basil leaves or “vegetables E Tu”, the cooking method is the same as the curry in the central region. But use pla yak water as a flavoring agent
1.3 Boiled into a curry of the Northeast. Use salt and fish sauce instead of fish water. Boiled will focus on fresh food from animals, not cut or cut into pieces, or if cut into large pieces, the taste will be salty and sour. Which is obtained from local plants such as young tamarind leaves, white vegetables, okra shoots and red ants, etc.
Boiled food Usually cooked at farms or new sources of food such as fish in a pond, the whole village will be boiled and eaten there. Another observation between the curry and the boil is that Curry with basil leaves The fish water has a salty taste. While boiling this type of seasoning is not added. But will focus on the sour taste and do not add chili or meat that is popular to make boiled, including different types of fish, snakes (especially Singha snake), chicken, etc.
2.Cooking with direct fire heat
2.1 Toasting is to cook food using the heat from the hot charcoal. That is, the food must be placed on top of a container such as a wooden stick by making a skewer or placed in the middle between two pieces of wood, tied at the end of the so-called “trunk” and then brought to the heat from the heat transfer to cook.
2.2 Grilling is more likely to preserve food. The purpose is to allow the water in the food to evaporate completely. Food can be stored for a long day. Usually it is preferable to cook food such as fish and frog, which is abundant in the rainy season. To preserve food When it is difficult to dry, grilling requires a low heat to grill the desired food until the food is golden crisp and without salt added to taste like grilling.
2.3 Jinan is a characteristic of cooking food. By placing the food on the hot coals Food is cooked by placing it on hot coals and food is cooked directly from the coals. Jinan has to be careful that the food will burn before it is cooked. Hence, the food has to be turned over frequently for the food to be cooked evenly.
3. The maturation through the conductive container
3.1 Mok is to cook food by wrapping the finished food with banana leaves. Then put it over a soft fire to cook well, and use other materials available instead of banana leaves. Popular include the golden leaf.
3.2 Oh Ooh is cooking food by passing through a metal conductive container or other container such as clay pot, which is a mixture of Mok and Aom, that is, while Mok uses banana leaves as a conductive vessel. Heat to cook And Aom uses the heat of boiling water, yes, it uses boiling water, but has a smaller amount, and unlike that, it is not careful in seasoning and cooking. A simple way is to bring the food to be cooked into a pot with water. A little enough to not allow the food to burn, add salt to the container. Most chili and basil leaves (Itu) cover the container to attach to the food, or use the banana leaf to cover the food first and then close the lid. Then put the container on a low fire until the food is cooked.
4. The cooking is undercooked.
4.1 Laab is a food to eat that does not focus on consumption alone. But commonly consumed is raw, how to do it is to chop the food into fine pieces, then season with fish sauce, fish sauce, lemon juice, roasted rice, chili powder, onion, mint, shredded parsley, often seasoned with spicy salad. Plant-derived foods such as mushroom (hard-shelled mushroom) and animal-derived larb such as birds, cows, shrimps, fish, shellfish. Most popular raw foods such as Laab Wua Laab Pla (popular both cooked and raw) and cooked such as donkeys. Larb Duck, Larb Chicken, Larb Shellfish, Larb Yae and Larb Kapom, etc.
4.2 Koi is basically the same as Laab, but the difference is that Koi does not use roasted rice, while Laab is put on roasted rice and focuses on chopping the food into large pieces or cutting into pieces. Koi is a raw food rather than Laab because it is chopped. Older or not chopped at all Sometimes animals that are popular to make koi such as small minnow, carp, shrimp, etc.
Some koi are added to roasted rice, such as shrimp koi, where fresh shrimp are added to seasoning.When exposed to the fiery spices, the shrimp will jump away to survive. So it is often called “Koi Kung Klang” which is very tasty and pleasing to Northeastern people Another thing to note is that Koi is more spicy than Laab.
5. Cooking Chili Paste
5.1 Ground is cooking by bringing food. That has been boiled with water until cooked well And bring the spices that have been boiled with food This is usually fresh chili, fragrant, pounded together, then add hot water, which is boiled food, mixed with pla daak in the first place. Then season with the addition of lemon Olive as you like, when consumed will include vegetables as a side dish such as lettuce, cucumber, long bean, popular meal types include fish, kob, kiad, shrimp, etc.
5.2 Jaew has general characteristics like cayenne, but focuses on using chili as the main ingredient or chopping down and grilling fish. But not pounded boiled fish with dried chili Chili peppers, fresh chili peppers, or chili peppers can be cooked until they are cooked. There are many different methods of making jaew, such as:
5.2.1 Dried chili is to use dried chili powder thoroughly or add chili powder with fish juice and squeeze lemon to make it the easiest to make.
5.2.2 Jaewbak, raw chili can be done in 2 ways: pound raw chilies and pound them together with onions, add fish sauce and fish juice, squeeze lime for seasoning or another way. Is to use chilli and onion to cook on the fire first And pounded together Tomatoes may be added as well for even better flavor.
5.2.3 Jaew Bong or Pla Maak Bong Or Jeaw Pla Maak Bong This type of Jaew has the most difficult way to do it. But kept to eat for a long time. Method is pounded chopped pla yak with roasted chilies, roasted onion, shredded lemongrass. May add tamarind Or jinaned tomatoes as well, depending on which house is going to make up the recipe according to your satisfaction
6. Cooking soup
It is a process of cooking vegetables that need to be boiled and boiled. Or fresh vegetables, cut into pieces with the addition of pounded spices. Then add enough hot water to get a thick, fragrant and mint food. To enhance the flavor, the popular vegetables are jackfruit, eggplant, hard mushroom, vegetable tio (Taeo), store melon (melon), pumpkin, etc.
7. Low-fat cooking It is a cooking recipe using spices, chili, garlic, pounded together and then the vegetables that want to cook, which are cut. Slice or cut into pieces and add to seasoning with fish juice, lemon, tomato as you like. Low-fat foods that are commonly seen are melon, papaya, banana, and mingling (miang), pounding moon cakes, and marmalade nuts.
Food preservation is a way to keep food for a long time and not spoil the food. For Isan people, there are methods of preserving food from ancient times that have been passed down, such as drying, pickling, salting, stirring.The preservation with these methods can be done for both plants and animals. Popular foods that are eaten and stored for a long time are
1. Salted meat (dried chunks) There are 2 types of salted meat, thin slices of salted meat and long strips of salted meat, called “Sin-tube”.
2. Som Moo (Sin Som), also known as Naem, wrapped with young gooseberry leaves. Can be eaten with gooseberry leaves
3. Isaan sausage is popular to eat 2 types of sausages, which are made with beef and pork.Keep it for 2-3 days, it will have a sour taste.
4. Salted Baknad (Salty Pineapple) made from puree with pineapple, salty taste of fish, sour taste of pineapple, eaten with fresh vegetables. Or will it be cooked as a spicy chili paste or a fermented soybean paste.
5. There are 5 kinds of moms.
5.1 Use finely ground beef in the gut or cow’s bladder.
5.2 Liver mash thoroughly and put in cow gut.
5.3 Beef and Liver The behavior is the same. Ie, grind it thoroughly and put it into the gut. When eating, it will be fried, grilled or roasted with fresh chilies, fresh shallots, lemongrass, kaffir lime leaves, or seasoned with lemon to sour. Eat with fresh vegetables
6. Jaew Bong is dried chili paste. Ingredients include fresh chili, garlic, dried chili, dried shallot, galangal, lemongrass, burnt to cook (Isan will call for cooked), grilled fish to dry. Pound thoroughly And then seasoned with boiled fish, tamarind (all kinds of seasoning must be cooked to keep for a long time)
7. Larb Pla Daak uses the main fish such as snakehead fish, muddled fish, E Tu only chopped meat with fresh chili, garlic, galangal, lemongrass, burnt to be cooked, finely chopped and cooked with lemon juice and shredded kaffir lime leaves. (Fresh chili, garlic, galangal, lemongrass, kaffir lime leaves, can not be burned).
8. Plasam: Pla, carp, breathe fish, fresh fish, scrape off scales, marinated with salt and steamed sticky rice together Then fermented in a closed jar, not allowing air in.
Popular local food
Native Isan vegetables that are mostly eaten It is used to make side dishes with other foods. Or some of them use it as a seasoning
1. Vegetables Kradon Kradon Land vegetables Kradon water vegetables.
2. Vegetables Meg
4. Bai Yanang
8. Phak Wan
9. Watercress Vegetable
11. Lotus Flower
12. Vegetables, gluten, orange.
14. Pond Vegetables
15. Jackfruit (Mak Mee)
16. Cassia Leaf
17. Bai Cha Plu (Eloet)
18. Cha-om vegetable (vegetable leg)
22. Chewy Vegetables
23. Young Pumpkin
24. Young Gooseberry Leaves
25. Galangal flower
26. Hooeaw or Rooster leaves
27. Chinese Lettuce
28. Raw papaya (betel nut or buckwheat)
29. Young Tamarind
30. Young shoots olives
31. Mushrooms, sediment mushrooms, chi mushrooms, charcoal mushrooms, earth mushrooms, suet mushrooms, bee mushrooms
32. Bamboo shoots such as bamboos, chasing bamboo, bamboo forest
Isan is a region that has a large area. It also consists of rivers, creek, swamps, canals, marshes throughout the region. In the rainy season, it is abundant with water and is abundant with various species of aquatic life. Fish has been a valuable protein food which is important for the way of life of Isan people since ancient times.
1. Catfish is the largest freshwater fish in the world. It is hard and thick skin. It is used to cook spicy and spicy Larb Koi, found in the Mekong River.
2. Chok is large enough with scales and a lot of bones. It is a popular fish that Northeastern people eat because it is delicious, sweet, creamy, soft meat, steamed, dipped in chili paste and steamed.
3. Pla Nang (a soft fish) long and flat, slightly oily flavor, soft meat, used to cook fried, boiled, grilled, steamed, fried
4. Sawai fish is a long, large fish with white on its cheeks without black dots. Yellow texture It has a very fishy taste and a very fishy smell.
5. Parboiled fish, black and white body, lead, similar to Pangasius The difference is that the cheeks have black dots, greasy flavor (like tepo), used to make a salty betel.
6. Pla Kang is like a catfish, but has a larger head than a dark green color. Soft white texture Which is used to cook the spicy larb
7. The fish has a long flat body, black and white with soft white flesh. Will be used to cook the spicy larb soup
8. Puffed fish, the body and meat are white, used to make a steamed curry. Or steamed with chili paste
9. The catfish is like fish Kang, but the head is smaller. Soft white texture The body is black or yellow, used for cooking in sour soup or grilled.
10. The fish has a large body and a large head, but a small tail. The body is yellow-black pattern. It has yellow meat with a fishy smell.
11.Bite fish has a body and flat head. The flesh and body are white. Used for cooking Larb type food
12. A small fish like a yellow catfish, used for cooking, fried and dried.
13. E Tu is a fish with scales. The body is black and brown. Big body is steamed and dipped in spicy chilli paste.
14. The pig fish has a flat body and finger size, sharp head, green like a wild boar, white, red, blue, red-orange tail, mince meat.
15.Black moray fish, about 3-5 inches long, pointed mouth, black dot tail, used for cooking, fried, grilled, and boiled.
16.Malad has the same body and size as moray. It has a beautiful pattern like a snake. Used to cook toasted, fried, tom yum
17. Pla Pak (carp) is medium sized, white and black scales with a lot of bones. Commonly used to make cured fish.
Isan people have a simple living, natural flora, vegetables or animals in the local area. Can be used as food In particular, there are many types of insects. They are high in protein animals. Most of it is cooked in a simple way, such as roasting, salt, it is used as a curry and omelette dish Which is now popular to spread to other local insects that are popular to eat include
2. Red ant and red ant eggs
3. Silk chrysalis
4. Per Hornet
5. Beetles or beetles.
6. Insect wattle
7. Beetles or white beetles.
8. Bug beetles or bug insects or dragonfly larvae
10. Jipom Jing Kong or the big crickets
12. Locusts, locusts, long-tentacles or oily arachnids. Mantis or scorpion
13. Beetles or long-whiskered beetles.
Fact four: accommodation
Residence of the Isan people
The housing model of the Isan people is part of the culture that arises from the accumulation and transfer of housing construction styles to suit the geographical councils and their daily uses. Until the birth of a pattern and a motto until it becomes a belief and tradition that are related to each other in life If to classify the type of residence of the Isan people They use service life criteria (temporary, semi-permanent and permanent), each with a different nature and material use as an indication of the service life. May be classified into 3 types:
1. Temporary accommodation
This type of shelter is used only for certain seasons, such as arguing a field or arguing a farm. High poles made of real wood or bamboo, bamboo frame, thatched roof, bamboo wood floor, open cover.
2. Semi-permanent residence
Semi-permanent residences may be classified into two categories:
2.1 A house (Isan language house means home) or a house is a house with 2 rooms, a pillar for a husband-wife who separates the house from the parents’ family. Because the custom is not popular with many families in the same house The house was often built in the immediate vicinity of the house of the parents. To be used as an address during the construction process There are only 2 parts of the house: a bedroom and a utility room.
2.2 Poles per coop are the construction of the huts or terns (sheds) that come out of the coop (barn) with the size of the length of the coop about 2-3 poles.The material used is the same type of material used to build a house. The dog-to-coop was a period of residence for newly wed husbands and wives. But not ready to build a house or a large house When a house or a large house can be built, the hoop per house becomes a place to store agricultural materials. Or as a resting place
3. Permanent Residence
Permanent residences have a solid wood structure. (House knocker), rectangular shape, Tai Thun, high, gable roof Pole is a round pole or square pole. The lid is a bamboo lid, a patterned string, or a wooden board cover (a keypad lid) .This permanent residence can be classified into 3 types:
3.1 A house on a bed or a large house to aground has an important component which is
3.1.1 The large house is a house of 3 sizes, the poles facing the east and west (planted Rong Tawan), hit the block cover on all 4 sides. And the light enters the house, called “Pong Iem”, pierces 2 or 3 gates
According to the pole on the opposite side, divide the useful area in the house into 3 parts:
– Poeng room is located on the side of the house of the main house, it is the place where the ledge of worshiping the ancestor spirits. Household ghosts and monk shelters Or sometimes it can be used as a son’s bedroom. The open room could be called the ghost room or the Buddha room.
– The middle room is a room in the middle pillar, the house is used as the father’s bedroom. Mother and collecting valuable items
– Toilets are located on the back of the house of the large house. Opposite the open room used as a daughter’s bedroom or a daughter’s bedroom with her son-in-law after the wedding.
3.1.2 A stranded house or an open house with a covered patio Looks like a porch coming out in front of the house There is a roof covering the floor with planks on the side. May open or block the lid And the floor on the floor is lower than the floor of the large house Use it as a space for various family activities such as dining. Receptions Ceremonies, making merit and feasting monks Performing a ceremony, etc.
3.1.3 The sun deck is the connecting platform from the front, open both above and on the side. The deck of the sun is lowered from the roof to be used as a place to relax in the evening. Is the dining place Or place agricultural products Part of the area is often built as a store to set up water jars for drinking, called “puddles shop”.
3.1.4 The firebox or kitchen house is the part of the house which consists of 2 columns connected from the sun deck on the rear side of the house. Fire housings are popular to make a lid. Airy for ventilation, the firebox may have a milk tea set to serve as water jars for cooking and washing utensils.
3.2 The Mekong House This type of house consists of a large house and a Mekong (Little House) located opposite May be installed next to each other as a gable house connected by Hang Rin (gutter) between the two houses or located far apart. But connected with a porch can be a small house and the roof is a little lower than the big house, there are 2-3 rooms, often covering only 3 sides, open the open side facing the big house. The Mekong is structured independently of the large house. Can be immediately dismantled to a new plant Use the same benefits as Angelica. There may be a sun deck or a firebox on the side of the house.
3.3 House of Twins, Twin Boats Will consist of a large house and another house The one that calls the house – twin, has the same functional shape as the megalith, differing in the structure of the twin houses That is, both the nasty and the beam will be deposited in a large house The floor of a house can be equal or lower from a large house. The twin housings can be larger or more casual than larger ones. The side cover that faces the large house opens to an open space connected to the porch. Sunshine to the house This type of house light is often the home of people with good economic status.
Fourth factor: the blanket
Weaving is a traditional handicraft of Isan people, which is considered the duty of women to spend their leisure time harvesting. To weave fabrics for use in their families or traditions, Isaan people have been influenced by the surrounding nature and used as the art of weaving various patterns, techniques and processes of silk and cotton production in stages. It was born from a combination of local technology experience that has been passed down for a long time by the pattern of the fabric. Called by weaving techniques such as Khit cloth, Mudmee cloth are all related to weaving fabrics in neighboring regions such as Laos and Cambodia. There is also an exchange of knowledge in providing techniques and techniques. And weaving patterns to each other As a result of the evacuation of people from neighboring countries and existing settlers, the styles of Isan fabrics have been varied and blended into a local style. Until it is unique to the region
Silk thread preparation
Preparation of silk threads to make a mudmee pattern
1.Preparation of the network: will bring the swaying silk to the loom By using To set the length as needed When the desired length of silk is obtained, it is then dyed, dried and then dried and used to investigate to prepare for weaving.
2.Preparation of the thread: Take the fluff that has been swayed to make a fuzz. And then dye the color according to dry Bring to beckon and spin the tube into the bobbin For pounding or tending into a piece of cloth
3. Preparation of strands (hing lines) that are patterned: Mudmee is tied or tied into various patterns. Method of starting from the swaying silk threads and making fries. Then put it into Hong Mee (Mudmee principle) When finished tie, remove from Hong Mi to dye. (The part that the tie will not be attached), the dye will use water to tint to the desired color, bring it to dry, beckon. To spin the straws in sequence first after Do not alternate, bring the spool into the bobbin in a line that weaves into the fabric.
Preparation of cotton threads for weaving
1. Preparation of the staple lines: The staple groups have both solid-colored staples and tie-dyed staples. The noodles that are tied on the back of the shoulder and have been bleached will be put into Hong Mee. And tie up the desired pattern Finished, dyeing as needed, then unwrap the tied rope and spread it into the Kong to spin yarn from Kong to put it again called “Wak”, then spin the thread from Akk into the spool by pulling one end of the thousand With a small wooden tube inserted in the axis of the iron, turn the handwheel. Let the stinger spin to spin the yarn into the spool, called “spinning” for the strands that are the ground line from the shoulder and bleach, so begged and spun the straw
2. Preparation of strands for stroller: After shoulder and bleaching, they are dyed into kong and spun from Kong to Akk, called “Wak” as well when the cotton strands from wagging cotton are in the other. And bring the 2 characters to it, called “the itch,” to define the line in order to make a network line If you want to make it thick, you can add four strands, so you won’t be able to put one thread because you will need to use it on the bottom line. When the yarn is already prepared, wrap the yarn along each column, from the bottom to the top, then wrap the yarn back in the same direction. Below, here is the important point. Cross the threads to make a strand on the lower strand. Which will lead to succession with him and continue to borrow When the number of threads has reached the enough number of borrowings, then the thread is removed from the pillar column for further investigation, called the itchy side as “hook chain”, and then put this thread into the borrow box. By bringing each strand together with the existing thread tightly and all lines.
Mudmee is the dyeing of cotton or silk before weaving by stretching silk threads into Hong Mee. Then use the rope to tie the unwanted part, stick the color tightly according to the desired pattern and then dye it. When unpacking, the tied part will be white. If wanting more, it must be tied over the original color, called “hob”, except for the desired color. Mudmee requires a skillful calculation. In order to make the pattern tied out beautifully Mudmee in Thailand will only tie the weft lines.
Equipment in the mudmee “Hong”
Hong or Hong Mee holds a stake for the thread or silk thread for making a pattern.
Mudmee cloth pattern It is a fabric pattern that is inspired by the surroundings and near nature, such as animals, plants and artifacts. From the survey, enough to divide the mudmee pattern into 7 basic motifs, which are
1. There are 2 types of Mee, straight-knotted, and sow-knuckle.
2. There are 2 types of Mee Dome: Mee Dome, Ha, Mee Dome, Seven.
3. Mee Mud Jab (Mee Mak Jab)
4. There are two types of Little Mee Gong; Five Little Mee Gong Seven Little Mee Gong
5. Mee Dok Kaew
6. Mee in bamboo
Chok is the scooping of silk or cotton threads. Raised from the bottom, interspersed into patterns as needed by using a woven-like fur alternating with embroidery, which requires a lot of expertise. Each unit cannot destroy the alternate colors. Because it uses only one dash each time Each unit is dissolved, so only one color can be made. As for the Jok pattern, the pattern can be colored alternately. What color do you want? Then insert that color into the silk thread. Then took up Then hit it tightly with Fennel. Most of the cloths like to make a sabai (a deviation cloth). Well known are Kanasin’s satin fabric. It is also popular to make a foot sarong pattern.
Saow cloth is a fabric used to preserve and inherit that pattern. The samples are collected in white cotton cloth, approximately 40 cm wide and 50 cm long, but not too wide or too long. Because it is easy to spread and see the pattern and storage
Cloth pattern Especially the satin fabric is distinctive and special, influenced by environment and nationality. Most of them will weave only 4-5 big main patterns, such as the flower pattern itself, the Kiew pattern, the leaf pattern – Bun Wan, the thousands of Maha, the Naga Hua Chum pattern. And the Lan Naga head kissed on two arms
Khit cloth pattern
Khit cloth has an important device which is not to collect Khit, creating a pattern by poking up the warp yarn periodically according to the specified pattern. The pattern of Khit cloth is a geometric pattern formed by spacing of the yarn by lifting the warp at the desired rhythm. In order for the line to walk Placing the stand at different distances will cause stripes. By using a stick to pick up the threads while weaving. Weaving Khit is considered to weave the fabric that results in a successful pattern in how many ways. Deflected cloth and make a body or skirt. In the cloth, a skilled craftsman can create various patterns such as the pattern of people, elephants, swans, lions beautifully.
Khit cloth pattern used in various occasions
– Khit Dok Khit: used in the religious ceremony, the Naga ordination ceremony
– Khit Lai Ta Phao Long Island: Used in the ordination of Naga.
– Khit Maeng Shadow: Serving guests at home
– Khit Thang: used for monks to make merit at home
– Khit request: use to decorate the living room
– Khit Dok Kaew: used to pay respect to adults
– Khid Khab Yai: used to pay respect to adults
– Khid Khab Noi: use to decorate the room of the son-in-law
– Khit Dok Chan: used in Songkran festival
– Khit Pythons: Khit Mak, Mokhit, Nanchai Khit Mangod: Used in the home.
– Khidmo Krayoi: Use to cover the altar.
Khit fabric patterns are usually geometric shapes, dots, squares, or straight lines.
– The point is not defined as a shape, it may be woven, scattered or continuous with other patterns.
– Straight line is to arrange the points in a row both horizontally and vertically.
– Triangles are either solid, woven, hollow or airy.
– Square, commonly used rhombus, canvases, or equal rectangles.
– Mixed pattern of Khit pattern, which is the pattern of Praewa, such as the Phan Maha Um Swan, the four-armed Naga pattern, the bouquet of Khan Mak. Star pattern
Villagers in almost every area of the Isan region will weave their own cloth for themselves. Using cotton and silk as raw materials Woven fabrics are used as a blanket and for everyday use. Used in the rituals of the villagers themselves. Or even a Buddhist ritual In the past it was also used as an exchange for each occasion and occasion as a tribute or tribute. To exclude the recruitment of large districts The weaving of fabrics used for important occasions It represents the skill, resolution, patience and imagination of the weaver. Including the ingenuity of using natural ingredients to benefit Both in functionality and beauty Therefore, the product of weaving is a measure of the qualities of women in Isan society to be ready to be a good wife in the future. It is for this reason that women are inherited. The knowledge of weaving through the family system continues.
Types of fabrics in the way of life of Isan people
1.Fabric in the way of life It is the fabric that is used normally such as
– Sarong is a woman’s sarong woven with silk or cotton. It will be worn on all occasions while at home or on a busy day, working in the farm. Use it as a bathrobe, as a nightgown to wear when there is a festival. Or go to religious ceremonies In this regard, different types of sarongs will be used according to the occasion and occasion.
– The sarong is a men’s sarong woven with burnt cloth or cotton in various patterns, used in every occasion like women’s sarongs. Depending on the type of work
– Ipo cloth or loincloth is a versatile fabric. Usually men use turban while working in the fields. Tie on the waist or over the shoulder But I see women in common use, such as a veil when going to work outdoors. Or to use a bundle when at home, etc.
– Gauze is a cloth that women or men use over or over their shoulders when going to make merit This type of fabric is finely woven. With Khit or Jok
– Hu cloth is a large piece of cloth similar to satin or loincloth. Most of them are woven with cotton. Used to tie the baby to a crib to sleep
– The cloth is a cloth that the woman intends to weave elaborately. To give as a gift to the male relatives and the groom on the wedding day It shows the readiness of being a good mother Sri Ruen in the future. And for the male relatives to be loving and loving
– The mantle is a cloth used to wrap the corpses of the dead before being cremated. Woven with cotton or silk Perhaps use the old cloth that used to be the property of the deceased. Perhaps using a new fabric that is finely woven When burning, the cloth will be removed and the cloth will be brought to the monk.
2. Cloth used in rituals Is a cloth used in villagers’ rituals that are associated with superstitions such as
– Cloth talisman seen will be the use of the old robes of the monks, white cloth or red cloth to draw letters and bring to worship. In response to superstitions such as to trade up To be able to take the exam to become a master Or even different spirits and demons disturb
– Ayubeng Fai cloth is a burnt cloth or cotton cloth that is finely woven with Jok or Khit. Used to hang the neck of a serpent on the fireballs For beauty Which will be the most outstanding fabric in the Isan people fireball procession
– Cloth used for offering monks Is a compact cotton cloth dyed with yellow turmeric In which the monks use the time to receive offerings from the laymen who are women In which the monk would hold the other side of the cloth at the reception
3. Cloth in Buddhist ceremonies Is a cloth used in Buddhist rituals such as
– Phawad cloth is a white cotton cloth. If it is rough weaving, it may be powdered to cover the weave and to facilitate the coloring used in the drawing. The story of the Thirteenth Vessantara, while the Phawad Phawad is a white cotton cloth, rough weaving, with a faint-colored embroidery of a period of 2-3 wa at the edge of the cloth decorated with burnt cloth or Khit woven cotton cloth. Eye-catching colors In some areas, the bell may be hung on the edge of the cloth. The cloth will be tied to a 3-4 wah bamboo pole in the “Bun Pha Wet Festival”
– Naga robe and Naga cover cloth Usually, the Naga sarong is a solid colored silk. Perhaps it is a striped sarong. Which nagas used to wear during the ordination ceremony Before changing to the robe of the monk The head cover of the naga is pure white cotton. Use to cover the head of the naga during the ordination ceremony. Especially in the procession of a field covering the temple or village in order to protect the heat from the sun
– Biblical Wrapping Cloth Will use mostly silk Which is usually silk that is woven by mudmee Considered to be the high art of weaving of the Isan people Use a wrap to keep the Bibanian scriptures from dust, moths and other insects destroying the Bibliography cloth, which can be silk or cotton. Woven by curling or from a compact piece. Use the second leaves of the scriptures when preaching.
Fourth factor: medicine
Medicine doctor in the middle of the house
Doctor of traditional medicine It is a traditional treatment. In the Isan countryside, there are methods of inheriting the ancient beliefs of healing. People who have a career in treating patients are called “home medicine doctors” call this drug “herbal medicine” or home medicine nowadays, although some of the home medicine books may be lost and lacking inheritance. However, Isaan people, especially in lands that are far away from prosperity, still have a lot of belief in traditional medicine that has been passed down.
Medicine doctor in the middle of the house or traditional medicine doctor in the Isan region, which there are many Most of them are elderly. Each doctor specializes in treating different diseases. And there are names for each other according to their ability or expertise, such as doctor of bones, doctor of oil, doctor of Namon, doctor of Ya Fon, doctor of N., etc.
Medicines and home remedies
Central home medicine used in the treatment of Isan people. There are different types of drugs, each having different therapeutic properties. However, that type of home medicine or herbs When cooked, it looks like this:
– The type of tablet that makes a bolus Most popular with honey and form a bolus.
– Powder type that is ground into a fine powder. Most of them are water-soluble drugs, can be taken orally, or can be used as a blow into the nose to relieve congestion, etc.
– Most types of water are soaking herbal medicine in water by raining herbal medicine and stones with dissolved water. Or boil the herbs to dissolve the drug (The water used is rain water or clean water)
– Most types of oils are obtained from vegetable oils. Animal oil and others
Wisdom and technology
The main occupation of Isan people is agriculture. For this reason, Isan people have the skills to adapt local raw materials to produce them as living tools. In the form of wicker, both household appliances And tools for catching animals
Way of life, beliefs, customs and religion Is an important factor affecting the production of Isaan wickerwork There is training and development and transfer until it is a cultural heritage. Which, in addition to having functional values, also expresses refinement Invention beauty is considered to be another branch of art that has a unique identity. At the same time showing traditional wisdom and technology created from nature.
Type of wicker
1.1 Agricultural tools are
1.1.1 The wand is a weaving tool. With a narrow bamboo, shaped like a cylinder, split in front, wide open The back is narrow with a long handle, used for bailing the field during the farming season.
1.1.2 V is a device used for screening the impregnated kernels that are still mixed with the full paddy kernels in the rice terraces.
1.2 Tools for catching and raising animals such as
1.2.1 Keng Noi Keng Yai is a device for holding poultry such as birds or chickens of various sizes, weaved with bamboo, with a distant, lemon-shaped eye cut into the halves. Small kelp Not the same size With a rope woven together, animals flew away Khang Noi has a rope for carrying as well.
1.2.2 The chicken coop or chicken coop has a cone-like shape, made of whole bamboo, cut into 8-10 teeth, but the last point is left, and a large bamboo hammer is used to weave the pattern with the bamboo teeth close to the spacing. modest By the wire to the end extended out, used for keeping chickens
1.2.3 The rod is a device for carrying fish that can be caught.
1.2.4 A lob is a tool for catching fish. Look like random Large, placed face up In the center there is a bamboo tube to drill a hole for bait to lure fish into eating. (Which is the entrance to eat the bait) to make tusks to prevent fish from swimming.
2.1 Basketry used in the kitchen for the purpose of cooking Or dine like
2.1.1 Steamer is a container for steaming glutinous rice, beans, sesame, weaving with conical bamboo, the bottom of the puff. Steaming rice with a steamer starts with the glutinous rice soaked in water. Come to wash the water and put the rice into the steamer Place the steamer on a pot of water and set it on the stove so that the water level in the pot is lower than the bottom of the steamer. Use a thin white cloth to cover the mouth to steamer to make the rice smolder.
2.1.2 Kutib is a container for steamed glutinous rice made from bamboo in a cylindrical shape with the same cover piled on the outer layer. The base is made of bamboo or tan stem, curled into a circle. There is a loop for stringing a long string on the cap for carrying.
2.1.3 A colander is a container for filtering liquids. Weave from bamboo into irregular, semicircle or square. With handles or handles to filter the coconut residue to separate the coconut milk Fish water filter Or filtering debris from the liquid
2.1.4 Kradeng is woven from flat and round bamboo with wide-eyed, short and dull eyes, with different uses, for example, dull kratom is used to remove dust and dirt from rice or grain. Kradeng frequently or away to dry things such as chili peppers, meat, etc.
2.1.5 The rice bowl is a container for steamed glutinous rice. Weaving from bamboo, there are 2 components: legs, preferably using a wooden cross in the shape of a cross tied to the lump of the body with 2 pegs, while the lid has a small ear for stringing that stretches up from the rice bowl for carrying or carry
2.1.6 The cover is a food cover. Prevent flies or other insects. Toms made of bamboo or rattan will weave in a semicircle.
2.1.7 Bunch of bottles is a container for bottles and glasses. Made of bamboo weaving in a square shape There is a bottle compartment and a handle.
2.2 Basketry that is mostly used in houses or in households, such as
2.2.1 The e-tap is a small, long-handled fan used to hit flies.
2.2.2 Cradle (baby cot) is used for sleeping Weave with bamboo or rattan rope and more, both for children and adults.
2.2.3 Po is a big kadeng There are streaks of hammered weave arranged in a spiral shape for the “Ripe Hawn” (old silkworm) that is ready to be used as a “phantom pod” (cocoon)
2.2.4 Secret drug in a small jar Used to contain equipment for eating betel nuts and dark drugs.
2.3 Wicker made for use both indoors and outdoors, for example
2.3.1 The basket is a transparent container made from bamboo. Square bottom of the exam, round mouth wider than buttocks. With sweet edge braids, with ears for inserting the rope to attach to the crossbar
2.3.2 Kata (basket) is a round container, fort with not elaborate pattern. Used for carrying or carrying things.
2.3.3 Ka-yang (pannier) made of bamboo weaving in a transparent string, square bottom, round mouth, with pattern for headband to walk up high.
2.3.4 Woven baskets are containers for things such as kapok, charcoal, salt, weaving with bamboo. They are cylindrical, distant eyes, typically about an elbow tall and sometimes covered with leaves.
2.3.5 A bucket shaped like a drug basket with a rope tied for carrying water into the drum. Bucket or other container
2.3.6 A small bucket shaped like a bucket, weaved with bamboo pegs. Used for measuring paddy Usually there are standard sizes such as A bag for measuring 5 kg or 10 kg of rice, etc.
2.3.7 V is the wind reverb weaving with bamboo. Have a round or square shape
3. Utensils for performing rituals
Wickerwork used for religious rituals such as
3.1 Cup bowl made from bamboo is a container shaped like a pan, available in various sizes, used for offering offerings.
3.2 Ta Lam is a ritual device to protect against inauspicious things by using wings on the ceremonial things, such as embroidery on a shag or on a rice terraces, etc.
Weaving is a household industry where Isan women spend their free time after harvest. Woven fabrics will keep for family use. Or for offering monks in various festivals, Isan people accept the influence of the surrounding nature Modified into patterns of different types of woven fabrics, creating different beautiful patterns, such as Mudmee, Jok cloth, Khit cloth, most often used cloth that can be woven to make pillows, blankets, sarong cloth, sarong cloth, sarong, which are all important appliances in Whole household
Silk weaving The weaving of Isan people has been weaving cloth since ancient times, it is the Thai-Lao culture. Isan women must weave and have been trained since childhood. Because they have to weave fabrics for use in daily life Including use in religious ceremonies
Preparation of threads for silk weaving
Preparation of kangal (warp) threads for ground silk and mudmee silk.
This step will bring the silk that swing. (To collect the silk and stuff from the fibers) and then go to look for the nook (preparing the yarn to make a strand by bringing the 2-mil thread to search, need to use 2 strands, if you want to thick, use 4 strands) by Use the principle of confusion (Wood staple used in the search) to determine the length of how many fabrics or how many meters are to be woven The guard will then determine the desired length. So it is dyed and dried in a dry and then taken to investigate to prepare to weave into the fabric.
Low line preparation (Weft or weave) silk ground
Take the swayed silk to form strands and dye to dry. Take it to beckon and spin the tube. Wear it with a pretty shift for low or tung weaving.
Preparation of low-lying noodles (weft lines) with mudmee in various patterns as desired. It started by taking the swaying silk threads and then turning them into tuff and then putting them on Hong Mee. (Mudmee principle) When the tie is done, remove from Hong Mi and dye it. (The tie part is not colored, the dye will use water to tint to get different colors as desired. Put to dry Beck into the ring to spin the tube. Sort in first-come, first-served Do not alternate with each other because it will not weave the pattern as tied. Then put the tube into the bobbin to be a line to continue weaving
Cotton weaving is a handicraft. Folk made in every region of the country. Each region has its own method and characteristics differently.
Isan region is another source that produces various types of hand-woven fabrics, passed down for many generations. “The leisure time from the field, women weave, men weave” which can reflect the way of life and society of Isan people well. The important function of women is weaving. Which is a secondary job from the main occupation
Soft cotton weaving can be separated into steps as follows:
1. The process of making cotton fluff.
2. The process of making cotton threads
3. The process of preparing yarn for weaving
1. The process of making cotton fluff.
Northeastern people will start planting cotton around November. Or December When the cotton anchor is fully fluffed, only clean fluff is selected and the seeds are separated. The villagers call it “Eew Fai” and clear it in the coconut milk, struming with cottonwood. To make the fluff fluff and fluff into a homogeneous consistency, the cotton fluff was then taken to the “cotton wheel” by spreading the cotton into a thin sheet on a wheel board, then using a wooden wheel (a small round stick like chopsticks) to lay it down and roll it up. Into a long round tube and pull the stick out of the cotton tube
2. The process of making cotton threads
When the desired amount of cotton is steamed. It was then spun into yarn by using a cotton tube that was wrapped around one end with the sting core attached to the night or yard. One hand grasps one end of the cotton buds. The other hand, holding the hand to spin, and so on, the hand holding the cotton must keep feeding the cotton away from the sting core. The core that has wrapped the iron will turn away from the core of the sting. The core that is wrapped in the iron will spin and spin out into small strips. Villagers call this cotton thread. “Cotton push”, the cotton line will be consistent or not based on the expertise of the spinners. When the thread is heavily wound on the sting, the cotton will stop. Using a staple called cotton plank, pull the cotton strands from the steel core to the wet cotton sticks. In order to keep the thread from getting entangled with the neat side, it is called “cotton plait”. Then, if you want to bring the side into a strand, it is soaked in rice water, called “cotton slaughter” so that the yarn is sticky and smooth without the hairs. But if you want to dye, bring to a boil, bleach, separate the fat. And then continue to dye
3. The process of preparing yarn for weaving
The preparation of yarn for weaving can be divided into two groups:
3.1 groups prepared for a low line (Weft or weave line)
3.2 Groups prepared to form affiliate lines (warp).
The low lines have both the low lines that are basic colors and the low ones that are mudmee. Tie dyeing is difficult depending on the pattern. The more complex patterns have to be tied and dyed many times. The weaving of Mudmee cloth is mostly used by silk. If it is mudmee cotton, it is usually a simple color pattern, such as white-black and indigo. The low strands of the mudmee, after being slaughtered and bleached, are then put on “Hong Mee” and tied according to the specified pattern. And then dye to the desired color And then unwrap the rope that was tied Then spread it into Kong to spin the thread from Kong to put Akk called “Kwak” finished and then spin the thread from Akk into the spool. With one end pulled over a small wooden tube made of bamboo or hemp branches Which is inserted on the axis of the sting, the hand spinning to allow the sting to turn the thread into the spool, called “spinning spool”
For the low line that is the floor line After killing and bleaching, it will be dyed. And then bring the straw and spin the tube
The yarn that is prepared for cart is strand, after being slaughtered and bleached, it will be dyed into the Kong. And spinning from Kong to put on Akk called Kwak, as well as the yarn that is prepared in a low line When the yarn from the cotton ball is in Akram, then the 2-Akk is called the “snooze.” The device used to search the nug is the principle of nudging to determine the yarn that will make the thread. The search must search for two threads at the same time. Or if you want to make it thick, add a line color You cannot use one line as it must be the top and bottom lines. When the lower strands are already prepared, wrap the threads on the first pole. Then lead the yarn along each digit from the bottom to the top And wrap the yarn back in the same way below This step is the focus. Will cross the threads to make a line on the lower strand Which will lead to succession to him and to borrow When getting the number of strands Full enough to borrow and then remove the side from the guard In order to carry out further investigation, villagers would call the searched side “the loom”, and then put this thread into the funnel hole. By bringing each strand tied together with the yarn Which is already tight and complete all the lines
When all the threads and all the low threads have been prepared, they will continue to weave into cotton.
Different types of woven fabrics
1. Khit cloth
Khit weaving is considered a high art work because it has to be done with elaboration. And the process is complicated, complicated, the weaver will have to spend effort. And concentrate on doing it by using a wooden ashtray Or poke the warp spoon and insert the yarn through the warp that was being spoon up. The rhythm of inserting the yarn will produce various patterns as needed.
Khit weaving has different patterns that reflect A way of life that is tied to nature Items and beliefs such as Khit, Nok Khit pattern, Manggod pattern, Khit Thammas pattern, Khit Dok Chan pattern, Khit pattern are most often made into geometric shapes such as square, point, straight line or mixed pattern, such as a thousand Maha Um Swan pattern, four-armed Naga pattern, etc.
Khit cloth is considered a tall item, so it is often used for the face of pillows, headscarves, shawls, and should not be used lower than the waist and not crossed or stepped on.
Weaving Khit cloth of Isan women is considered a high art work because weaving must be done with elaboration. If the weaver does not try Or without concentration enough, it will not weave beautifully Because if even one line is wrong, the defect will be clearly visible Khit cloth is considered a high item. Therefore, it is used to make the face of the pillow, headdress, shawl, if making cloth, it should not be used below the waist. Otherwise it will be difficult Even when making fabric into pillows or utensils, they must not be skipped or rubbed. Or sit on a pillow, if the Khit cloth is kept low, it will Which is the belief of the Isan people
Khit fabric patterns are usually geometric shapes such as rectangles, dots, straight lines, yet it does not appear that the Khit fabric is woven into curves or circles.
1. The point is woven into a point, may be woven as a scatter point. Or continuous assembly of other Khit designs
2. Straight line is to arrange the points into a row. A straight line Horizontal and inclined
3. Triangles There are many sizes, both a solid weave. Hollow or transparent weave
4. The most commonly used rectangle is the rhombus. Diamond Rectangle, square or equilateral rectangle
5. Mixed pattern is Khit pattern that is the pattern of Praewa, such as the Phan Maha-Um Swan, the four-armed Naga pattern, the Chor Khan Mak Star pattern, network climb, etc.
2. Mudmee cloth
Weaving Mudmee Cloth It is a kind of traditional weaving art. Popular for a long time in almost every village until some have developed into a family industry. Mudmee cloth is made from cotton and silk. It is considered as a local art and handicraft with a unique identity of the Isan region. And is prevalent
Weaving Mudmee Cloth Initially, yarn or silk must be dyed as desired. And then stretched to Hong Mi Use a straw rope to tie the unwanted parts of the color tightly according to the pattern. And then used to dye When the rope is untied, the tied part will not become discolored. When the rope is untied, the tied part will not become discolored. When the rope is untied, the tied part will not be colored, called wrapped according to the specified pattern. Then dye, dry and tie and dye like this until you get the desired color and pattern, sometimes you need to do 6-7 rounds. And precisely to make the pattern come out beautiful
Pattern of mudmee cloth Most of them will be inspired by nature and environment such as naga pattern, horse pattern, necklace pattern, pine tree pattern, castle line, etc.
Fabric pattern design The pattern creator was inspired by nature and environment, which should be divided into 4 categories:
1. Patterns that come from animal shapes such as scorpion pattern, naga pattern, spider pattern, horse pattern, elephant pattern, peacock pattern, rooster pattern, lion pattern, bird pattern, rabbit pattern, etc.
2. The pattern comes from the shape of a plant. For example, a flower necklace pattern, Pikul flower pattern, Or flower pattern, Bunch flower pattern, Moon flower pattern, Pine pattern catcher
3. Patterns obtained from artifacts and utensils such as knot pattern, five lantern pattern, seven lantern pattern, castle pattern, pine pulpit pattern, etc.
4. Miscellaneous designs such as Khit-Ta pattern, Rice-grain pattern, Mee Rai, etc.
Basic template pattern
From the survey of Mudmee patterns in the Isan region Of the Department of Industrial Promotion Ministry of Industry Has been grouped into 7 basic patterns
1. There are 2 types of Mee, straight mee, sow mee.
2. There are 2 kinds of Mi Khom: Mee Khom Ha, Mee Khom Seven.
3. Mee Bak Jab (Mee Mak Jab)
4. There are two types of Little Mee Gong: Little Mee Gong Five. Seven Little Mee Gong
5. Mee Dok Kaew
6. Mee Khong
7. Bamboo Leaf Mee
In addition to weaving the basic template pattern The villagers will mix and match patterns to create new designs, such as a request to modify to a naga pattern. Naga pattern carrying unit, Naga pattern, etc.
Jok is to draw silk or cotton threads. Come up from below, insert alternate patterns as desired Using a stick or a hedgehog or fingers raised. Alternating weaving with embroidery Which requires a lot of expertise Similar to Khit pattern But the Jok pattern will do alternating colors in a more detailed pattern Most of the Chok cloths are made into a sabai (a deviant cloth). Kalasin satin fabric
In addition, it is also popular to make a foot skirt pattern. The beautiful patterns of Praewa are distinctive, which are influenced by environment and nature, and only 4-5 main lines are woven, such as the flower line, the waist line. Bun Wan pattern Naga pattern, head kissed Naga pattern, head kissed on two arms, etc.
To preserve the pattern and inherit that pattern Each house usually made a pattern of samples collected in white cotton. The size is about 40 centimeters wide and 50 centimeters long for easy opening and storage. Which may have more than one piece, it is called “flaunt cloth”
Pottery has long been associated with lifestyle. Since human society has transformed the nomadic lifestyle into a combination of settlements Being a community and producing food for oneself and the community has always been
From a subsistence agricultural society Causing people in society to invent tools and utensils From natural materials for daily life Pottery is a device created from wisdom by using clay that has a special shape to decorate a container of various shapes for use, such as pot, jar, jar, as well as may be used in rituals. Especially in rituals involving death By using the technology in sintering to achieve permanent durability Later, there is a decorative pattern for more beauty. As it turns out, evidence that can be found from archaeological excavations is everywhere.
At present, there has been a development of pottery shapes to be suitable for functional purposes and to be used as a variety of decorations such as pots, basins, jars, vases, lamps, crockery, mortars, necklaces, dolls and many more
Ordinary earthenware pottery
Earthenware pottery They are generally produced in the Isan region and still use traditional molding methods. By using a flat-faced wood to hit the outside Together with the fierce stone supporting the weight of the hit inside By extending the clay to cover the bottom of the container, the bottom of the container is rounded and fired at low temperature with an open-air furnace. The resulting container is a highly porous soil container. Therefore there is always a rate of seepage of water Therefore, they are often produced for the purpose of cooking, such as stoves, stoves, pots, different clay pots, for storage and preservation. Due to the limitations on durability and small filling volumes This type of pottery is usually not painted or painted except to be used for decoration such as plant pots.
Tough pottery is the pottery developed from ordinary pottery. For the benefit of food storage and preservation And are small household appliances such as jars, basins, mortars, and cups using a rotating wheel Firing technology using an excavator or a masonry furnace Which can control the temperature By burning with high temperature Until the texture is tough and has a coating of various colors for beauty and usefulness at the same time
A source of strong pottery production in the Isan local area for sale in different areas of the Isan region, including the Sakon Nakhon basin and the Korat basin, the four most important are
1. Ban Phon Bok, Phon Phisai District Nong Khai Province
2. Ban Kut Pla Khao, Khao Wong District, Kalasin Province
3.Ban Tha Hai, Khueng Nai District, Ubon Ratchathani Province
4.Ban Dan Kwian, Chokchai District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province
All 4 villages produce pottery, strong meat for sale in different areas of the Isan region, have been produced continuously since the past. Some of them still produce the original pattern. Because it is still in demand But has also produced new types of appliances to meet the functional needs of the new society
One kind of handicraft that is old and shows known to Isaan people to be used before people in other regions is the metal handicraft. It was discovered that Isaan people were able to make bronze utensils from 3,600-3,000 years ago, after which it developed into steel utensils, which were 2,500-2,000 years old, using local materials. Deep local wisdom to meet the usefulness of daily life.
90% of the brass production in the Isan region is traditional production. Is to melt the alloy Using a wax replacement method and done by hand. Forming and dimensions depends on the experience and expertise of the technician. Therefore, the shape of the brassware looks similar. But different in dimensions Because technicians do not use standard measuring tools Most brassware is a hollow inside container. Able to contain things There are eight types of brass instruments classified by shape and pattern: cylindrical, mixed-cylinder, conical, conical, semicircular. Lotus bud shape, round shape, spiral shape overlapping. And the shape of the cleaver knife
Currently, the important brass production village is Ban Pa Ao, Muang District, Ubon Ratchathani Province. And Ban Nong Bua Noi Nong Bua Noi Subdistrict, Sikhio District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province Which produces casting bell works And at Ban Bing, Chokchai Subdistrict, Chokchai District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province Production of brass Buddha castings.
Brass making process
Brasswork is located on a flared floor. The ancient process of casting alloys is the casting of alloys using the wax substitution method.
Elements of bringing brass instruments of the Isan people
1.1 Natural raw materials such as anthill soil, clay soil, cow manure or cow dung. Custard or cypress, cypress, or steeper firewood and water
1.2 Ingredients include rice husk, wax, brass, aluminum and wood charcoal.
2. Process for casting brassware
The melting process of brass casting consists of the following steps: Fine soil preparation Sand core molding Drying the sand core Sand core turning Wrapping the sand core with wax threads, making patterns, filling the slots for wearing less wood. Fuze Covering wax figures with fine clay. Covering with coarse clay. The last airing of the puppet, the robbery, the brass melting Brass pouring, printing, brass finishing and polishing of brassware.
3. Tools and equipment
Most of the tools and equipment used for forging brass are locally made from scrap materials. They are uncertain in size and shape because tools and equipment are fabricated according to the preferences of each user. Therefore, they differ when considering tools and equipment based on rules with the materials used to make the tools. And usable benefits can be categorized into 6 categories which are
– Wooden tools and equipment
– tools and equipment made of clay
– Tools and equipment made of stone
– metal tools and equipment
– metal tools and equipment
– tools and equipment made of rubber
– tools and equipment made from plant fibers
In the Northeast, steel has been used since prehistoric times. Metals made of iron, such as utensils and jewelry, are found scattered everywhere. Shows the relationship with the ancient urban communities in various watersheds up to the present There is a metal work made of steel scattered. Almost all the provinces are tools. Household and agricultural appliances such as tiller, shovel, shovel, and shovel are generally used for heat forging.The raw materials used are ductile iron or steel such as car leaf iron, steel rod and railway steel etc.
At present, this profession can generate income for the community. Therefore, it is often made in the household industry and career path in the family. The production technique is still a traditional local form, which is the use of manpower. Expertise and simple equipment such as hammer, filing, charcoal stove, iron, anvil
Forging products Can be divided into 3 large categories as follows
1. Agricultural equipment products Used for general farming such as knives, hoes, shovels, axes, etc.
2. Household products including thin knives, fruit paring knives, scissors, etc.
3. Products such as tools and equipment such as construction tools, carpentry, blacksmiths, these types of products include hammers, planers, chisels, etc.
Criteria for the selection of materials
Forging of structural steel, you must select the type of steel that can be forged only. Which must be tough steel Which has both hardness and toughness Have a high percentage of carbon in the iron. Can be hardened
Generally speaking, when manufacturing structural steel, a blacksmith uses the following types of steel.
1. Steel fuel tank cover is steel taken from a 200-liter fuel tank, used for forging thin-profile steel and used to make sheaths. This type of steel has a relatively high price.
2. Steel filings are filings that can not be used. When it is made into a shape, it is of very good quality. Most will be hit with a steel scraper or a chisel to drill wood.
3. Steel car leaf spring. It is a steel tweezers which are not used and are cheap, hard and tough. They are mostly used to make different types of machetes that are used in agriculture.
4. Iron rod, which is sold in the general market. There is less hardness than a steel tongs, but the price is higher. Can be easily shaped Most of them are used to make ancient knives. (Decoration) making spakes, making shovels and knives
5. Railway steel This kind of steel is obtained from old railway tracks. It is reasonably priced, but not many on the market, it is slightly less sturdy than a pair of steel tweezers.
Most of them are used to make different types of axes. Nowadays, blacksmiths are using iron tweezers. It is the raw material used in forging most of the various products because the tweezers steel has the hardness. And very sticky and easy to forge Easily available and the price is not very expensive.
Silverware is a karma metal that is commonly produced in the Isan region. Will produce utensils and jewelry Has created a pattern And identity according to the different localities. Will rely on the expertise and patterns that are transmitted in the village Production continues to form a household industry. Which many local people will adhere to as work in parallel with farming, everyone in the village can do it all, for example, doing “Praem” at Ban Khwasinarin and Ban Sot Ban Chok, Ban Na Pho, Muang District, Surin Province. Which still maintains the unique production and carved patterns that have been accumulated since ancient times that are delicately beautiful
Steps for making silverware “Prue”
1.Equipment preparation stage Equipment for making silverware, “Pruek”, including
1.2 Hammer or hammer hammer
1.4 Money (money)
1.7 carving tools
1.8 steel cut
1.9 Rolling machine
1.10 Bonding solution
1.11 Solder or soldering machine
1.12 Molded steel platform
1.14 steel drill
2. The process of making silverware “Pruek” can be summarized as follows.
2.1 Silver pellets are melted in the crucible.
2.2 Pour the melted silver into a mold, which is a steel platform.
2.3 Remove the money from the print and iron it into a long thin sheet.
2.4 Cut the rolled silver sheet into pieces of the desired size.
2.5 Connect the cut silver plates together. With the binder to form the specified shape
2.6 be formed into the desired shape.
2.7 Finishing the edges and edges using spiral curves. Place the ends of both the head and the tail of the ball that has been shaped.
2.8 Boil the rimmed balls and boil them in water. Which consists of water, alum and salt
In a suitable ratio, boil for about 15 minutes.
2.9 Bring the slope to fill the central root inside the ring. So that the baby has a stable shape
2.10 Use a tool to carve designs on the ball.
2.11 Use steel as a hot fire rod, penetrating into the slope. Which is in the middle of the ball to make a hole For threading or stringing
2.12 Scrub the balls white with a brush in warm water mixed with detergent.
2.13 If you want to have a black color, can be dyed in hair dye. Then scrub the embossed pattern, deep groove will stick in black.
The traditional leg tattooing of Isan people has been an ancient wisdom. According to the beliefs of tattooing legs, pattern has been passed down from time to time. Ai Lao tribes migrate to the Lanna and Lan Xang kingdoms. Often popular with ink. Until becoming a unique identity of local people in that area
Most Isan men are popular with tattoos. Otherwise, it will be viewed as a “big mother” (women), but there are some women, especially those in the past 60 years. Tame “or a mind of” tattooed legs, “some people explain that in order to practice Dharma about Dharma, that is, to be tolerant Restrain, restrain, and for strength to be a man. Some say it causes stamina in the mundane as well.
Men who have tattooed legs are highly regarded by the general public, especially the opposite sex. Make yourself proud Therefore, they always open a sarong or soft cloth. To show off his striped legs
Tattooing the perfect leg pattern has a poem that
“Legs are striped, then the waist is set up.
Set up and the way to hammer gold.
A little bird tattooed on his cheeks, is it ”
If the pattern is just above the knee and not reaching the waist, it is known
“Prawn pattern legs, fish, pupa”
How to get tattooed legs
The tattooing will use an ink-plated spike, which is made from the yam leaves simmered with smoke. Mix the animal well and apply tattoo or jog it gently into the skin to allow the bleeding and the black to absorb.
1.Mom-like pattern with a lion This tattoo is popular by common people because it is a symbol of a powerful animal. And leadership in the herd of the animal world It is a wild animal. The appearance of the body is an elephant with a tail, a horse with a lion’s face.
2. The pattern of Khawd bird or Nok Kuan is a charming line that is very popular. As the tagline says “Nok Kuan pattern invites youngsters to go to the casino to sleep”
3. Flower pattern, popular for both women and men. In general, they usually tattoo a Phak Wan flower pattern on their arm.
4.Short-sized snake pattern (Shaped like a pliers or knife legs) popular tattoo area under the knee down. It is believed to prevent poisonous, reptilian, or stinging in the water.
Phee Fah Lam Phee Fah
Isaan people have a traditional belief about the powerful spirits in the sky, known as Phee Fah Phaya Tan, who gives you the blame. As well as inspiring all things on earth The Lam Phee Fah is a contact with a ghost in the sky to bring down His Highness to assist in healing and healing the sick.
In the Isan region, every village has a perennial forest in the west. In the west, the forest has a shrine called “Tub Pu Ta”, which is a ghost of the village to help take care of happiness. Or preserve in the war in the village, there will be an old man who is a contact between the spirits of grandfather, every year there will be a party for the grandfather spirits.
Medicine doctor in the middle of the house
Medicine doctor in the middle of the house or a doctor of traditional medicine In the Northeast there are many more. At present, I am an elderly person who has knowledge in using medicine in the home or traditional medicine. Inherited Each doctor will have different expertise in treating diseases and will be named according to their skills, expertise in their expertise, such as osteopath, doctor of oil, doctor, Namon, doctor, Ya Fon, Mor N, etc.
Wicker Is a product of wisdom mixed with the environment of the Isan people Expresses refinement, subtle beauty in an artificial way The patterns and the appearance of the basketry of the Isan people to see their identity. At the same time showing local technology that was used Blended with beauty cleverly, the Isaan people take advantage From general daily life wicker, which can be classified according to functional benefits Is household appliances Agricultural appliances Used in raising animals Catching animals, children’s toys and benefits in rituals.
Kong Rice, a container of steamed glutinous rice made of bamboo, has three components: the legs are made of solid wood, crossed in the shape of a cross. Tied to the buttocks section The body of the rice bowl is woven with two pegs, and the lid has 2 lugs for stringing the rope up from the kong. For carrying or carrying
Is a container made of bamboo with a steep slope Shaped like a kata, used for scooping water or holding various aquatic animals such as fish, eels, frogs.
It is a tool used for detention of crabs, fish, frogs, shrimps, shellfish, made of bamboo, weaving halves of the mouth area with a lid to prevent aquatic animals from jumping out There are many kinds of relevance, such as the duck and the float.
Ban Chiang Pottery
Found in ordinary pottery It is expected that this is the first time, the Ban Chiang culture group has produced pottery at least 3,500 years ago by using both in rituals and for daily use. Will be decorated to be more beautiful
Dan Kwian pottery
Ban Dan Kwian Is the source of production Pottery Isan important To meet the needs of the community and benefit as needed widely. Both the package size and the beauty Suitable for use that requires persistence, such as food preservation, fermentation that takes a long time, which is the way of life of Isan people at present, production has been developed, which makes Dan Kwian pottery a variety of beauty. Color and persistence
Brass is considered a metal work. That has been associated with the life of the Isan people since the past, both functional and ceremonial, brass production, most of the process is traditional, both by hand forming and measuring with a prediction. experience Most brassware is a hollow container that can hold things in it.