Isan architecture has styles that relate to the way of life and culture of the people of the region. In spite of being, an architecture built for a residence, such as houses, architecture related to religion such as Sims, Hall, and That.
The housing model of Isan people is part of the culture that arises from the accumulation and transfer of housing construction styles to suit the geographical conditions and their daily use. Until the birth of a pattern and motto to become a belief and tradition that are related to each other in life If to classify the type of residence of Isan people. Using the service life criteria (Temporary, semi-permanent and permanent), each of which has a different nature and use as an indicator of the service life.
1. Temporary accommodation This type of shelter will be used only for certain seasons, for example: Arguing a field or arguing a farm This shelter has a high platform. The pole is made of real wood or bamboo. Bamboo trusses thatch roof Bamboo floor, open lid.
2. Semi-permanent residence Semi-permanent residences may be classified into two categories:
2.1 The house of the house (Isan language house means home) or the house is a house with 2 rooms, a pillar for the husband-wife couple who separated the house from the parents’ family due to the tradition of not living together. Many families in the same house A home is often built in the immediate vicinity of the parental house. To be used as an address during the construction process There are only 2 parts of the house: a bedroom and a utility room.
2.2 Poles per coop are the construction of the huts or terns (sheds) after the paddy field (rice barn) has a size along the length of the coop, about 2-3 poles. The material used is the same type of material used to build the net The yawtup to the coop is the residence for a while for the husband and wife who have just been married But not ready to build a house or a large house When able to build a house or a large house The hoop towards the coop will become a place to store materials and equipment used in agriculture. Or as a resting place
3. Permanent Residence Permanent residences have a solid wood structure. (House chute) square shape Under a gable roof, round columns or square pillars The lid is a woven bamboo lid with a dragon pattern, or a wooden board cover. This permanent residence can be classified into 3 types:
3.1 A large house is a house of 3 sizes, the columns are facing east-west. (Ruan Long Tawan) Hit the block cover all 4 sides of the house on the back, penetrate a channel, width 1 cubic meter, length 1 cubic meter to allow the wind and light to enter the house called “Pong Iem”. The pole on the opposite side divides the useful space in the house into 3 parts:
– Poeng room is located on the side of the house of the main house, it is the place where the ledge of worshiping the ancestor spirits. Household ghosts and monk shelters Or sometimes it can be used as a son’s bedroom. Poeng room may also be called a ghost room or a Buddha room.
– The middle room is a room in the middle of the house. Used as a bedroom for parents. And collect valuable items
– The room is located on the side. The stern of the big house, opposite the Poeng room Use as a daughter’s bedroom or a daughter’s bedroom with a son-in-law after marriage.
3.1.2 A stranded house or an open house with a covered patio Looks like connecting a patio in front of the house with a roof covering the floor with planks. Open side or block the lid And the ground floor is lower than the floor of a large house, used as an area for various activities in the family such as dining, receptions, receptions, making merit-making, monks Performing a ceremony, etc.
3.1.3 The sun deck is connected to the deck out of the front, open on both sides of the deck. And on the side of the sun deck will be lowered from aground Use it as a place to relax in the evening. Used as a place to eat or place agricultural products. Part of the area is often built as a store to set up water jars for drinking, called “puddles shop”.
3.1.4 The firebox or kitchen house is the part that cooks food. Is a house size 2 columns connected from the sun deck at the end of the house The firebox cover is popular to make a transparent lid for ventilation. The firebox may have milk tea as a base for water jars for cooking and washing utensils.
3.2 The Kong House, the nature of this type of house consists of a large house and a megalith (a small house) located across it, which may be adjacent to each other. Twin gables connected by Hang Rin (gutter) between the two houses. Or located at a distance from each other, but connected by a porch The Mekong house is smaller and the roof is slightly lower than the large house. There are 2-3 rooms, often separating only 3 sides, open the open side facing the big house. The Mekong house will have a structure that is independent from the large house. Can be immediately dismantled to a new plant Use the same benefits as Angelica. There may be a sun deck or firebox on the side of the house.
3.3 A Twin House will consist of a large house and another house called a twin house. Has the same shape and utility as a megalith The difference is that the structure of the twin houses is that both the nasty and the beams are deposited with the large house. The floor of a house can be equal or lower from a large house. The twin housings can be larger or more casual than larger ones. The side cover facing the main house will be open, connected to the sun deck to the fire house. This type of house is often the home of people with good economic status.
Sim I-san (Northeast Buddhist Holy Temple)
“Sim” has the same meaning as “Church” or “Ubosot”. Sound eroding comes from the word “Sima”, meaning a boundary or territory established for use in monastic activities. Which must be done inside the SIM, cannot do it outside
There are 3 types of sims, which are made in the house, called “Kamsima”, they are made in the forest. “Dwarf Sima” Sima made in water called If the monks have not yet tied up, call “Phatthasima” if they tie and call “Phatthasima”, and “Anekkhamasima” is “Kham Sima” that the Lord of the land raised the land. To create a sim for But Sima is whatever kind, if he has not yet tied it, is still permanently unstable, for the giver may revoke at any time, saying that if he has tied the roots, it will descend to the water supporting the earth. Therefore, when a Sim is created, it is popular to tie the color every time.
The form of Sima in Isan is mainly seen in 2 types, which are “Khamsima” or what Isan people often call “Simbok” and “Nam Khep Si Ma” so called “Si. Water
1. Sima water or Kok Thok Khap Si Ma In Isaan, there are very few, built because of the urgent need for the assembly of the temple, which does not have a temple or there is only a monastery that still lacks “Sim” that has bound the boundaries in accordance with the discipline.
The foundation of the first water tank is often used by boats. Or the raft tied together Then laying the floor boards to make a simple house, regardless of the architectural style for beauty in any way Simm Nam Niyom was widespread during the propagation of Buddhism and Dharma in the days of Phra Ajarn Manphuritanto. Master Satat Kantasilo and Master Singkhantayaak Mo
2.Simbok or Kam Sima It is truly the work of Isaan local architects. Conveys wisdom Folk craftsmen from the original who teach, modify, adapt, and continue to carry on, even though the size is not large Magnificent compared to other regions But it is the truth that reflects life Of people on the plateau as well
Simbok or Sam Bok can be classified in a variety of formats than Simbok until it produces 4 major patterns of Simbok as follows.
-Sim Isan, pure folk
-Sim Isan, applied by local craftsmen (later version)
-Sim, Isan, local and capital city
– E-san that imitates the capital
If it is divided according to the architectural characteristics of Simbok, it can be divided into 2 types:
1. Airy or simmering type. Which can be subdivided into a clear, pure folk, there are no pillars, get the wings And with a pole to receive a bird’s wing
2. A solid type which can be subdivided into
– Pure folk solid wood and brick construction. In which bricks are considered to have both with and without bird-wing posts
– Dense local, applied by local craftsmen (later version), both used by local craftsmen, Thai-Isan. And technicians or have been influenced By Chang Yuan, which can be classified as no front porch and front porch With front porch and back porch and a round balcony
– A sim used local and capital city style.
– A Sim that imitates the capital.
Legislation according to the discipline that said “There are 3 types of waters that monks can define as hydroge.
2. Sea and ocean
3.Chatra that holds the spontaneous water
The three types of monks can be performed on a boat or on a raft tied to the water pillar or anchored. Away from the riverbank than before, bail splashing (about 3 wa), he forbid to do it in a boat, in a floating raft that was walking, could do on a shop that grew in the water, he said.
Therefore, “the shop that grows in the water” is the reason for becoming a more permanent type of water. Can be used for a long time Although not very durable Nowadays, the water in the northeast has been lost almost unrecognizable.
Sim Wat Si Chai Rat, Non Phueng Subdistrict, Kanthararom District, Sisaket Province
It is a folk sarong that shows moral significance. The winged roof extends from the surrounding walls effectively in the shape of the track. And proportion, giving a feeling of lightness and dislocation above all worlds, while at the same time, Yong maintains the simplicity according to the pure folk style of Isan people
Sim Wat Sri Than, Ban Naat Subdistrict, Thawatchaburi District, Roi Et Province
Si Than Temple is a solid, pure folk. Reflecting patterns and motto in constructing It represents wisdom combined with Buddhist folk art. It is a beauty that is simple, pure and meets moral.
Sim, Wat Kut Chum Nai, Kut Chum Nai Subdistrict, Kum Chum Nai District, Yasothon Province
Simwat Kum Chum Nai It is solid, built with wood. Traditional Thai-Isan craftsmanship with richness, beauty, and unusual patterns. Decorated as appropriate According to the way of life of the people in the Isan region
Sim Wat Wutwararam, Phon Sao Ae Sub-district, Renu Nakhon District, Nakhon Phanom Province
Sim Wat Wutwararam, a solid folk with influences of Chang Yuan In creating Sims in the later days, it was popular to use Vietnamese craftsmen in the construction. With a master craftsmanship of bricks and laying paving patterns, they have mixed styles of Vietnamese arts and arches in the doorway. The windows were influenced by the French one.
Sim Thung Sri Muang Temple, Muang District, Ubon Ratchathani Province
Sim Thung Si Mueang Temple It is a solid, folk and capital city. By being converted to the shape of a dragon-shaped roof, like a hung-hung-tail, and a pole into a central motto Remaining only Hang Phueng (including Phueng) and the original monks, as well as wall paintings (Hoop Taem), late Rama III art.
“Sim Isan” in addition to the form that indicates the uniqueness of Isan local architecture And there are also many other details of the decoration that make the body even more beautiful, it can be separated into 3 parts as follows
The upper part is the roof, all of which have decorations such as Chor Fah, Ngai Lam, hongsa, eaves, and facial expressions, etc.
The middle part is the sixth, it is transparent, it does not have as many decorations as it is dull. This section is mostly brick and mortar, with decorative elements such as doors, windows, Huai Hang Phueng, and some places with hoop points. Both outside and inside as well as the base of the Chukchi Buddha image is considered a decoration in this section.
The base part is the waist-bowl part that is made of masonry, made upside-down, and has a belly, keel-board according to the taste. The work of the Isan region, where the rhythm and proportion are laid out from other regions, other than that, there is a stucco in the shape of an animal guarding the stairs, such as a crocodile, a lion, etc.
It is a dialect of the Isan region, used to refer to a monument or building, used to contain the relics of the deceased, has the same meaning as a stupa or a pagoda in the central language. That means a place containing the bones of an ordinary person. From the villagers to the governor and the general monk The relics were built to house the relics of the Lord Buddha. Or only the Arahant The prominence of the form is often more pronounced in the middle of the “top of the That” than the others.
The forms of relics can be classified into 6 groups as follows.
– Low base groups such as Phra That Si Song Rak, Dan Sai District, Loei Province, built in 2103 B.E.
– High base groups, for example, Phra That Phanom (Ong before the renovation, 1940), That Phanom District, Nakhon Phanom Province
– Ruean That group made 4-way arches of the yodthatmiple, for example, Phra That Phra That, Wat Mahathat, Mueang District, Yasothon Province.
– Ruean That group has a trajectory arch of Bua Liam, for example, Phra That Bua Phuan, Mueang District, Nong Khai Province.
– Eight-sided peaks group, for example, one eight-sided Phra That in Wat Phra That Bang Phuan, Mueang District, Nong Khai Province, That Kong Khao Noi Kills Mae In Wat Thung Sadao, Sadao District, Mueang District, Yasothon Province
– Recess group of 12 Throne Rueanthat, 8 facets, bell-shaped peaks, for example, a large statue (Ratanakon Chedi) in Wat Phra That Bang Phuan, Muang District, Nong Khai Province, another small Buddha image in Wat Phra That Bang Phuan, Phra That Wat Klang Si Chiang Mai District, Nong Khai Province, where the temple has built all the bricks
“That” in the first place was popularly used, so it was called “That Mai” by using wood to cut into 4 square pieces, width not more than 30 cm on each side and decorate the top of the pillar to be extraordinary. Later developed using the bricks. This can be bigger and stronger, called “That Cement”. Isan craftsmen use the technique of masonry made by themselves and use mortar called “Cha-Tai”, which is made of lime mixed with sand, rubber bong and leather juice as a binder
Cement That can be classified according to the importance of the dead as follows.
1. Cement That: Ordinary individuals include bone-in That of ordinary villagers in general, usually made not high and large, both smooth and plaster. Decorated as a pattern around Ruean That
2. Cement That is the principal or a respected person in the village. As well as the elements of the governor Or descendants of a family The elemental construction for these people is more refined than that of ordinary individuals.
3. Cement Monk That include of Phra Thera, the abbot, Ya Khu or Ya Than, etc., often constructing taller, bigger, more complex. It is located in a prominent position in the temple, followed by “Phra That” and there is also a style of “Bu Ban” or “Lak Ban” (mostly made of wood) of Isan that is similar to “Wood” of common people is different, but there is no space containing only bricks. It is another very interesting folk art.
Phra That Phanom, Nakhon Phanom Province
Phra That Phanom in the Urang Khantan is a relics containing the Urangkathat of the Lord Buddha. Renovated during the reign of Phonsamek The restored artisans come from Vientiane and get their designs from Pha That Luang, but they have adapted only the tops of that to create a new look of the Phrathat on the right bank of the Mekong River. And influence throughout the northeast, upper and central parts
Phra That Phanom present
Created in place of the old one, which fell on August 11, 1975, the top of the bottle-shaped element, tall, slender, is a new permalink during the Chom Phon government. Pibulsongkram (1940)
Phra That Renu Nakhon, Nakhon Phanom Province
Phra That Renu Nakhon
It is the relics in the high base group, just like Phrathat Phanom, it is the relics that show the motto and appearance influenced by the original Phra That Phanom (before 1940).
Phra That Si Song Rak, Loei Province
Phra That Si Song Rak is a relics in the Than Low group, a form of Lan Xang art that has influenced the form of Phra That in the Isan region since the past, according to the history of the Phra That in the Isan region since the past. Of the relics created to witness the contract of friendship During the Mahachak Emperor of Ayudhya and King Chai Chetthathirat of Sonsat Naknahut (Vientiane).
Phra That Kham Kaen Pagoda, Khon Kaen Province
Phra That that has low-based showing Lan Xang art as well as Phra That Si Song Rak according to the history of the creation At that time, the group invited Phra Urangkhathat to be enshrined at Phra That Phanom, passed by and returned because they had not been packed in time because Phra That Phanom had finished building. Inside The tree stump came to life, so a vision was made to create relics by bringing the Phra Urangkhathat back to contain Phra That Kham Kaen.
Wood relics is the use of four square bars, approximately 15-25 cm in size, unlimited height to create a place for the relics of the common people. It is a basic work in a mechanic. As the basis for creating jobs Monumental architecture for a later occasion.
Phra That Poon
Phra That Poon is a That made of cement without using a steel frame by a skilled craftsman who develops patterns from the wood. The relics are mostly packed in Rueanthat made for ordinary people. Important persons, as well as masters and monks.